Dr. Mohd Radzi Abu MansorNational University of Malaysia, Malaysia
Speech Title: Performance and Emission of Biodiesel Fuel with Various Additives in Direct Injection Diesel Engine
Abstract: Alternative fuels for diesel engines have become highly important in the automotive industry due to the depleting fossil fuel sources and increased environmental concerns. Global warming concerns due to the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have seen as one of a major factor in the promotion of using biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine and have a good combustion characteristic because of their long-chain hydrocarbon structure. However, biodiesel possesses few disadvantages such as lower heating value, higher viscosity, much high density and not able to flow at low temperature, these can contribute to several engine problems such as low atomization during injection, carbon deposit formation and injector clogging. There are many types of additives on the market but the extent of the additives on engine performance is unknown and lack of research has been done in studying the performance, emissions and fuel consumption of B100 biodiesel. There is five B100 biodiesel, but the content of additives and composition is left unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify individual composition in each biodiesel samples, such as the identification of additives and fatty acids methyl esters using gas chromatography (GC-FID). The experimental measurements of density, viscosity and calorific value of B100 biodiesel were being conducted. The results showed that a blend of biodiesel with diethyl ether and n-butanol has the closest calorific value to fuel diesel followed by the combination additives of ethanol, butanol and methyl pyrrolidone. The samples that met the specifications of ASTM D6751 were conducted using simulation CONVERGE CFD software; based on single-cylinder, direct injection, YANMAR TF90 diesel engine parameters. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. Engine performance and emission concentrations are investigated by determining the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency, CO, HC, NOx and gas emissions using simulation. Performance results show that the combination of diethyl ether and n-butanol as an additive with crude palm oil will give a higher brake power as well as lower NOx and brake specific fuel consumption among the 5 samples. The emission studies revealed that the addition of n-butanol additive can reduce carbon monoxides (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) emission while diethyl ether can improve the spray characteristics when it blends with B100 biodiesel due to its low density and viscosity.
Keywords: palm oil methyl ester; direct injection; biodiesel; performance; emission; additives